健康报道

VOA慢速英语:室内空气污染每年导致数百万人死亡

时间:2014-12-10 11:14:56  作者:Voice of America  来源:VOA慢速英语  查看:862  评论:0
内容摘要:From VOA Learning English, this is the Health Report.这里是美国之音慢速英语健康报道。The way we cook is important. In many countries, the two choices are na...

From VOA Learning English, this is the Health Report.
这里是美国之音慢速英语健康报道。

The way we cook is important. In many countries, the two choices are natural gas or electric-powered stoves.
我们做饭的方式非常重要。在许多国家,两大选择是天然气或电力炉。

The World Health Organization warns that millions of people are dying every year from indoor air pollution.
世界卫生组织警告说,每年有数百万人死于室内空气污染。

Indoor air pollution results from the use of dangerous fuels and cook-stoves in the home. To help fight the problem, the WHO announced new guidelines aimed at reducing household pollutants.
室内空气污染来源于在室内使用危险的燃料和灶具。为了帮助战胜这一问题,世界卫生组织宣布了旨在减少家庭污染物的新准则。

WHO officials say nearly three billion people are unable to use clean fuels and technologies for cooking, heating and lighting. And they say more than seven million people die from exposure to indoor or outdoor air pollution each year. Of that number, the WHO says about 4.3 million people die from household air pollution given off by simple biomass and coal cook-stoves.
世界卫生组织官员最近表示,将近30亿人无法使用清洁能源和技术做饭、取暖和照明。他们还表示,每年超过7百万人死于室内外的空气污染,其中大约430万人死于生物燃料和煤炉释放出的室内空气污染。

Most of the deaths are in developing countries.
大部分死者都是在发展中国家。

The WHO's plan of action for reducing indoor pollutants is based on new findings. These findings show that the use of toxic fuels in inefficient stoves, space heaters or lights is to blame for many of these deaths.
世界卫生组织减少室内污染物的行动计划是基于多项新的研究。这些研究结果表明,其中多数死亡归咎于在低效炉灶、取暖器或照明工具中使用有毒燃料。

Carlos Dora is Coordinator in the WHO's Department of Public Health, Environmental and Social Determinants of Health. He says people should not use unprocessed coal and kerosene fuel indoors. He says opening a window or door to let out the harmful air will not correct the situation. It will only pollute the outdoors.
卡洛斯·多拉(Carlos Dora)是世界卫生组织公共卫生及健康问题环境和社会决定因素司的协调员。他说,人们不应该在室内使用未经处理的煤或煤油燃料。他说,打开门窗让有害气体排出无法扭转这一局面。它只会继续污染室外环境。

"You cannot expect that a bit of ventilation is going to get rid of this. It is really about very clean technologies and clean fuels. And, the fuel story has not been stressed enough so far in the global debate. So, that is the new thing. We should be going for clean fuels. We should be avoiding coal. We should be avoiding kerosene and we should be going for the solar, the LPG (liquified petroleum gas), the ethanol ... the solutions that we know exist that can address a big proportion of this issue."
“你不能指望通风就能摆脱污染。它只能通过使用清洁技术和清洁燃料。而且,燃料一说在全球辩论中至今强调得还不够。因此 这是一种新说法。我们应该采用清洁燃料,避免使用煤和煤油。我们应该采用太阳能,液化石油气和乙醇等。这些我们知道的现有解决方案可以解决很大一部分问 题。”

WHO officials say indoor pollution leads to early deaths from stroke, heart and lung disease, childhood pneumonia and lung cancer. Women and girls are the main victims.
世界卫生组织官员表示,室内污染会导致中风、心脏和肺部疾病、儿童肺炎和肺癌等早逝。妇女儿童是主要受害者。

The WHO says these diseases can often result from high levels of fine particulate matter and carbon monoxide released by the burning of solid fuels. These fuels include wood, coal, animal waste, crop waste and charcoal.
世界卫生组织表示,这些疾病通常源自固体燃料燃烧时释放的高浓度细颗粒物和一氧化碳。这些燃料包括木柴、煤炭、庄稼秸秆和木炭。

The United Nations found that more than 95 percent of households in sub-Saharan Africa depend on solid fuels for cooking. It says huge populations in India, China and Latin American countries, such as Guatemala and Peru, also are at risk.
联合国发现,撒哈拉以南非洲地区超过95%的家庭依靠固体燃料做饭。联合国称,人口众多的印度、中国,以及危地马拉和秘鲁等拉美国家也存在风险。

Nigel Bruce is a professor of Public Health at the University of Liverpool. He says researchers are developing good cook-stoves and other equipment to burn fuels in a more efficient way.
奈杰尔·布鲁斯(Nigel Bruce)是利物浦大学的公共健康教授。他说,研究人员正在研发让燃料燃烧更有效的炉具和其它设备。

"There are already multiple technologies available for use in clean fuels. There is really quite an effective and reasonably low-cost ethanol stove that is made by Dometic (a Sweden-based company) that is now being tested out .. it has been tested out in a number of African countries and we do report results from that in the guidelines. LPG cook is obviously widely available and efforts are under way to make those efficient. Another interesting development is electric induction stoves."
布鲁斯说,“现在已经有可用于清洁燃料的多种技术。一种非常有效、成本合理的瑞典多美达公司生产的乙醇炉现在也正在接受测试。它 已经在一些非洲国家经过测试,我们对此结果做了报告。液化石油气做饭显然已经得到广泛使用,并且采取了多种措施使其高效。另一种有趣的发展是电磁炉。”

WHO experts note some new, safe and low-cost technologies that could help are already available. In India, you can buy an induction stove for about $8.00. And in Africa you can buy a solar lamp for less than $1.00.
世界卫生组织专家指出,一些可能有帮助的安全、低成本的新技术已经面世。在印度,8美元就能买到一个电磁炉。而在非洲,不到1美元就能买到一盏太阳能灯。

But, this, the agency says, is just a start. It is urging developing countries to use cleaner fuels and increase access to cleaner and more modern cooking and heating appliances.
但是世界卫生组织表示,这仅仅是个开始。该机构正在督促发展中国家使用清洁能源,并提供更多途径来获得更清洁、更现代的烹饪和取暖设备。

I'm Anna Matteo.
我是安娜·马特奥(Anna Matteo)。
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