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美国外交政策谁做主?总统还是国会?

时间:2015-03-15 11:41:29  作者:VOA News  来源:美国之音  查看:92  评论:0
内容摘要:An open letter to Iran by 47 Republican members of the United States Senate released Monday started a heated debate this week. The question ...

An open letter to Iran by 47 Republican members of the United States Senate released Monday started a heated debate this week. The question was: Who controls foreign policy -- Congress or the president?
周一公布的由美国47位共和党参议员写给伊朗的一封公开信在本周引发了激烈争论。问题在于:谁控制外交政策?是国会还是总统?

The letter warned Iran that any deal over its disputed nuclear program with the Obama administration could be overturned. It said that the next U.S. president "could revoke such an executive agreement" and "future Congresses could modify the terms of the agreement at any time." Without congressional approval, the letter said, the agreement would be only an executive agreement.
信中警告伊朗,该国与奥巴马政府就其有争议的核计划达成的任何协议都可能被推翻。这封公开信表示,下任美国总统可以撤销这类行政协议,而未来国会可以在任何时间修改协议条款。信中说,如果没有国会批准,这项协议就只能是一项行政协定(无法缔结成为有效条约)。

Lawmakers signing the letter included all but seven of the Republican Party's 54-member majority in the U.S. Senate. They noted that President Barack Obama was leaving office in less than two years, as required by the Constitution. Many of them, they said, might still be in office for many years.
签署这封信的国会议员包括了美国参议院共和党多数派54位成员中47位。他们指出,根据宪法要求,奥巴马总统还有不到两年时间就将离任。而他们中的大多数还将在任多年。

Historically, presidents and Congress have argued over their constitutional powers to control foreign policy. Thomas Fleming is a historian who writes about American history. He says America's first president had a strong opinion on the responsibility of the executive branch in foreign policy.
从历史上看,总统和国会对他们控制外交政策的宪法权力有过争议。托马斯·弗莱明(Thomas Fleming)是一位著述关于美国历史的历史学家。他说,美国首任总统对行政部门在外交政策上的职责意见非常强硬。

"Washington's presidency was the strong president personified. He was barely in the chair of the presidency more than a few days and he wrote a letter to all the nations of Europe saying ‘if you want to communicate with the United States of America, write a letter to me, George Washington, not to the Congress.'"
他说,“华盛顿的总统任期就是强势总统的化身。他就任总统才几天就写信给欧洲所有国家说,‘如果你们想同美国交流,写信给我乔治·华盛顿,而不是给国会。’”

President Obama criticized the letter to Iran on Monday. A spokesman for the president, Josh Earnest, told reporters the letter was an attempt to slow down the sensitive negotiations. The U.S. and five other world powers are trying to reach a basic agreement with Iran. The goal is to persuade Iran to give up its program to develop nuclear weapons in return for easing of international sanctions.
奥巴马总统周一对这封写给伊朗的信提出了批评。总统发言人乔希·欧内斯特(Josh Earnest)对记者表示,这封信是为了延缓这一敏感谈判。美国和其它五个世界大国正试图同伊朗达成基本协议。我们的目标是说服伊朗放弃发展核武器计划换取减轻国际制裁。

Republican Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell of Kentucky was one of the lawmakers to sign the letter. He defended it, saying he did not know why the administration wanted to keep Congress out of the emerging deal with Iran. He said it was clear that the president did not want Congress to have a part in a deal that could have a big effect on U.S. national security.
来自肯塔基州的共和党人米切·麦康奈尔(Mitch McConnell)是参议院多数党领袖,他也签署了这封公开信。他辩解说,他不知道政府为什么希望国会远离这一同伊朗即将成形的协议。他说,很明显总统不希望国会参与这一可能对美国国家安全具有重大影响的协议。

The letter brought strong reactions from former and current diplomatic officials. Democrat Hillary Clinton has served as both a U.S. senator and a U.S. secretary of state. She said the letter was out of step with the best traditions of the Senate.
这封信引发了前任和现任外交官员的强烈反应。民主党人希拉里·克林顿(Hillary Clinton)曾经担任美国参议员和美国国务卿。她说这封信与参议院的优良传统格格不入。

U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry said on Wednesday that the letter left him in "disbelief."
美国国务卿约翰·克里(John Kerry)周三表示,这封信让他难以置信。

"This risks undermining the confidence that foreign governments in thousands of important agreements commit to between the United States and other countries. And it purports to tell the world that if you want to have any confidence in your dealings with America they have to negotiate with 535 members of Congress."
他说,“这可能会破坏外国政府同美国和其它国家之间承诺的数千项重要协议的信心。这摆明是昭告天下,若要对与美国达成的协议有信心,就必须同535名国会议员洽谈。”

Not all Republican Senators agreed with the letter. Earlier in the week, Senate Foreign Relations Committee Chairman Bob Corker did not think the letter would help to get a bill that would require Congress to advise on a possible nuclear deal with Iran and possibly lifting sanctions at an appropriate time. And Senator Susan Collins of Maine told VOA that she did not think the letter was the right thing to do.
并 非所有共和党参议员认同这封公开信。本周早些时候,参议院外交关系委员会主席鲍勃·考克(Bob Corker)认为这封信无助于通过一项法案,这需要国会对同伊朗可能签署的核协议以及适当时候解除制裁提出建议。缅因州参议员苏珊·柯林斯(Susan Collins)对美国之音表示,她不认为这封信做得对。

Iranian officials also responded to the letter. Iran's supreme leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei said the move showed "disintegration" in U.S. politics. Iranian Foreign Minister and chief negotiator Mohammed Javad Zarif dismissed the letter, saying it was of "no legal value."
伊朗官员也回应了这封信。伊朗最高领袖哈梅内伊表示,此举显示了美国政治的分化。伊朗外长和首席谈判代表穆罕默德·贾瓦德·扎里夫(Mohammed Javad Zarif)对这封信不屑一顾,他说,这封信没有法律价值。

Talks are set to restart on Sunday. Negotiators are seeking to complete the basic deal by the end of March, with final agreement by the end of June.
会谈将于周日重启。谈判人员正寻求在三月底前达成基本协议,并在六月底达成最终协议。

Whether the U.S. can reach a nuclear agreement with Iran, one thing is clear. The U.S. Constitution states that the President of the United States "shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties."
不管美国是否能同伊朗达成核协议,有一点很清楚。美国宪法规定,总统有权缔订条约,但须争取参议院的意见和同意。

I'm Christopher Jones-Cruise.
我是克里斯托弗·琼斯 - 克鲁斯(Christopher Jones-Cruise)。
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