词语典故

不要陷入“第二十二条军规”逻辑陷阱

时间:2014-11-23 18:46:44  作者:Voice of America  来源:美国之音  查看:57  评论:0
内容摘要:在当代美语中,Catch-22已作为一个独立的单词,用来形容任何自相矛盾、不合逻辑的规定或条件所造成的无法摆脱的困境、难以逾越的障碍,表示人们处于左右为难的境地,或者是一件事陷入了死循环,或者跌进逻辑陷阱,等等。Now, Words and Their Stories, a VO...
在当代美语中,Catch-22已作为一个独立的单词,用来形容任何自相矛盾、不合逻辑的规定或条件所造成的无法摆脱的困境、难以逾越的障碍,表示人们处于左右为难的境地,或者是一件事陷入了死循环,或者跌进逻辑陷阱,等等。

Now, Words and Their Stories, a VOA Learning English program about American expressions. I'm Anna Matteo with the expression, Catch-22.
这里是美国之音慢速英语词汇掌故节目。我是安娜·马特奥(Anna Matteo),今天我们讲的是Catch-22这种常用表达。

Here is a situation: You want to find work. You find a job that you think you could do well. You ask for the job, but are told you cannot have it. The reason? You have not done that job before.
举例来说,你想找工作,并且找到了一份自认可以胜任的工作。你去求职,却被告知你没法获得这份工作。原因呢?你之前没干过这类工作。

That is insane, you think. I cannot get the job because I have never done the work. How can I ever do the work if I cannot get the job? And that is the catch -- "Catch-22," to be exact.
你认为这太荒唐了。我不被录用只是因为从没干过这工作。如果我不被录用,我又怎能干过这工作呢?这就是所谓“陷入死循环”。

The expression Catch-22 comes from the name of a book written in the 1960s by Joseph Heller. Catch-22 is the story of Captain John Yossarian, an imaginary Air Force flier in Europe in the closing months of World War II.
Catch-22这种表达源于约瑟夫·海勒( Joseph Heller)于上世纪60年代写的一本书的书名。这本书讲的是约翰·约塞连(John Yossarian)上尉的故事,他是一位虚构的二战末期的欧洲空军飞行员。

Yossarian is angry because so many people he never met are trying to kill him. He has to fly day after day to drop bombs on the Nazis who are trying to shoot down his plane. His commander keeps raising the number of times his men must fly before they can go home.
约塞连非常生气,因为很多他从没见过的人都想杀他。他必须日服一日地飞到想打下他飞机的纳粹头上扔炸弹。他的指挥官不断提高手下飞行员必须飞满才能回国的飞行架次。

Yossarian searches for a way to stop flying. He finds an Air Force rule that says a soldier can be removed from flight duty if he is insane. Yossarian decides any soldier is insane if he is willing to put his life in danger by continuing to make dangerous flights.
约塞连想要找到办法停飞。他发现空军有条规定,如果士兵疯了,就能免于执行飞行任务。约塞连认为,如果一位士兵愿意通过继续执行危险的飞行任务把自己置于危险境地,那才真是疯了。

He thinks he has found a way to save his life. But he learns there is a "catch" – a tricky condition — to that rule. Anyone who requests to be removed from flight duty because he no longer is willing to put his life in danger cannot claim to be insane. He must continue to fly.
他认为自己找到了保命的办法。但他得知,这条规定存在一种棘手状况。任何人因为不再愿意把自己的生命置于危险境地,要求免于执行飞行任务,都没法声称自己疯了。他必须继续飞行。

That was the "catch" in Catch-22. Catch-22 is often used today to describe what seems to be a reasonable solution that will not work because of an unreasonable condition.
这就是第22条军规中的逻辑陷阱。如今Catch-22通常用于描述一些看似合理,却因为某个不合理条件导致不管用的解决方案。

The book Catch-22 has many other examples of Catch-22, of course. At one point, a prostitute, a woman who has sex for money, tells Yossarian that she cannot marry him because he is crazy. She says she will never marry a crazy man. And she considers any man who would marry a woman who has already had sex ... crazy.
《第22条军规》这本书当然还有很多关于Catch-22的其它例子。有一次,一位为钱出卖身体的妓女告诉约瑟连,她不能嫁给他,因为他疯了。她说她绝不会嫁给一个疯子。她还认为,谁要是愿意娶已经和自己发生过关系的女人,那绝对是疯了。

This is a Catch-22 because as soon as a man agrees to marry her, he becomes crazy for wanting to marry a woman who has already had sex. So, she cannot marry him. She will remain unmarried until she changes the illogical condition that keeps her in her own Catch-22.
这就是一种自相矛盾的状况。因为只要有人愿意娶她,那人就是疯子,因为他想娶已经和自己发生过关系的女人。所以,她不能嫁给她。她会一直单身,直到她改变这种让自己进退两难的不合逻辑的条件。

That is what happens in a Catch-22 situation -- no way out.
这就是Catch-22状况的结局--没有出路。

Here is another simple, real-life example. You want to borrow your parent's car for the night. You ask your mother. She says, "That is fine with me. But first, you must get permission from your father."
以下是另一个现实生活中的简单例子:你想要借父母的车过夜。你问你妈,她说,“我没问题。但你首先得征得你爸爸的同意。”

But when you ask your father, he says, "It is fine with me. But you must first get permission from your mother."
但当你问你爸时,他说,“我没问题。但你首先得征得你妈妈的同意。”

In other words, you are caught in a classic Catch-22, a trap used by some parents.
换句话说,你陷入了一种经典的进退维谷,这是一些家长设的圈套。

But you are not caught in Catch-22 if you want to learn English. Simply listen to VOA Learning English.
但如果你想要学英语,你不会进退两难。很简单,听美国之音英语学习节目就行。

This VOA Learning English program, Words and Their Stories, was written by Frank Beardsley. I'm Christopher Cruise.
以上就是本期美国之音慢速英语词汇掌故的全部内容。本期节目由弗兰克·比尔兹利(Frank Beardsley)编辑。我是克里斯托弗·克鲁斯(Christopher Cruise)。

And I'm Anna Matteo.
我安娜·马特奥(Anna Matteo)。(51VOA.COM对本文翻译保留全部权利,未经授权请勿转载,违者必究!)

根据第二十二条军规,疯子才能获准免于飞行,但必须由本人提出申请;同时又规定,凡能意识到飞行有危险而提出免飞申请的,属头脑清醒 者,应继续执行飞行任务。第二十二条军规还规定,飞行员飞满上级规定的次数就能回国,但它又说,你必须绝对服从命令,要不就不准回国。因此上级可以不断给 飞行员增加飞行次数,而你不得违抗。如此反复,永无休止。

分享到:
相关评论
评论者:      验证码:  点击获取验证码
给力英语网旗下网站  赣ICP备14008257号-1
Powered by OTCMS V2.85